Creating a Database that Meets User Needs 3: The Requirements Phase

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After the scope of a database development project has been established during the Definition Phase, you need to find out what the stakeholders in the project need it to do for them. That is the job of the Requirements Phase. In the Definition Phase, you talk with the client. This is the person who has the authority to hire you or, if you are already an employee, assign you to this development task. This person is not, however, the only one with an interest in the project. In all probability, someone other than the client will use the system on a daily basis. Even more people may depend on the results generated by the system. It is important to find out what those people need and what they prefer because your primary client may not have a complete understanding of what would serve them best.

The amount of work you must do in the Requirements Phase depends on the client. If can be quick and easy if your are dealing with a client who has prior experience with similar database development projects. Such a client has a clear idea of what he wants and, equally important, what is feasible within the time and budget constraints that apply.

On the other hand, this phase can be difficult and drawn-out if the client has no experience with this kind of development, only a vague idea of what he wants, and an even vaguer idea of what can reasonably be done within the allotted time and budget.

Aside from your primary client, other stakeholders in the project, such as various users, managers, executives, and board members, also have ideas of what they need. These ideas often conflict with each other. Your job at that point is to come up with a set of requirements that everyone can agree upon. This will probably not meet everyone’s desires completely. It will be a compromise between conflicting desires, but will be the solution that gives the most important functions to the people who need them.

The Statement of Requirements

The Statement of Requirements is an explicit statement of the database application’s deliverables, including its display, update, and control mechanisms. It will answer such questions as:

  • What will the display look like? How will components be arranged? What will be the color scheme?
  • What items will need to be updated, and how will that be done?
  • How will users navigate between screens?
  • Will selections be made by key depressions, and if so, which  keys will do what?
  • Will operations be initiated by mouse clicks? If so, which operations?
  • What will the maximum acceptable response time to a query be?

The Statement of Requirements must be as detailed as possible because it is essentially a contract between you and your client. You are agreeing on exactly what will be delivered and when it will be delivered. To seal the arrangement, bot you and your client should sign the Statement of Requirements, signifying agreement on what you will be responsible for delivering.

Sumarizing, in the Requirements Phase you must:

  • Interview typical members of all classes of stakeholders in the project.
  • Provide leadership in getting stakeholders to agree on what is needed.
  • Create the Statement of Requirements, which describes in detail what the system will look like and what it will do.
  • Obtain client approval of the Statement of Requirements, indicated by a signature and date.

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